Agitate, Educate, and Organize ~OO~
Burning Spear – Marcus Garvey
“Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr. (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political activist, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator. He was the founder and first President-General of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL, commonly known as UNIA), through which he declared himself Provisional President of Africa. Ideologically Garvey was a black nationalist and Pan-Africanist.
Jazzmobile – Summer 2015 (Marcus Garvey Park, Harlem)
Garvey was born to a moderately prosperous Afro-Jamaican family in Saint Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, and apprenticed into the print trade as a teenager. Working in Kingston, he became involved in trade unionism before living briefly in Costa Rica, Panama, and England. Returning to Jamaica, he founded UNIA in 1914. In 1916, he moved to the United States and established a UNIA branch in New York City’s Harlem district. Emphasising unity between Africans and the African diaspora, he campaigned for an end to European colonial rule across Africa and the political unification of the continent. He envisioned a unified Africa as a one-party state, governed by himself, that would enact laws to ensure black racial purity. Although he never visited the continent, he was committed to the Back-to-Africa movement, arguing that some people of African descent should migrate there. Garvey’s ideas became increasingly popular and UNIA grew in membership. However, his black separatist views—divided Garvey from other prominent African-American civil rights activists such as W. E. B. Du Bois who promoted racial integration.
…Committed to the belief that black people needed to secure financial independence from white-dominant society, Garvey launched various businesses in the U.S., including the Negro Factories Corporation and Negro World newspaper.
In 1919, he became President of the Black Star Line shipping and passenger company, designed to forge a link between North America and Africa and facilitate African-American migration to Liberia.
“Garvey, a journalist, moved to Harlem from Kingston, Jamaica, in 1914 and quickly became a lightning rod for black pride. Besides founding the UNIA, he also started a newspaper, a church and the publicly-owned Black Star Line, four ships that formed a trade and transportation link between Pan-African countries.”
In 1923 Garvey was convicted of mail fraud for selling the company’s stock and imprisoned in the United States Penitentiary Atlanta for nearly two years. Many commentators have argued that the trial was politically motivated.
“Hoover jailed him. It was a frame-up to get him out of the country and put him away,” Tafari said. This view is also held by Makeda Garvey and historians. Garvey was jailed in 1925 and given the maximum five-year sentence. “
Deported to Jamaica in 1927, Garvey settled in Kingston with his wife Amy Jacques, Garvey continued his activism and established the People’s Political Party in 1929, briefly serving as a city councillor. With UNIA in increasing financial difficulty, in 1935 he relocated to London, where his anti-socialist stance distanced him from many of the city’s black activists. He died there in 1940, although in 1964 his body was returned to Jamaica for reburial in Kingston’s National Heroes Park.
Burning Spear – Marcus Garvey – 01 – Marcus Garvey
..Garvey was a controversial figure. Some in the African diasporic community regarded him as a pretentious demagogue and were critical of his collaborations, violent rhetoric, and personal prejudices.
He received praise for encouraging a sense of pride and self-worth among Africans during an African diaspora precipitated by poverty, discrimination, and colonialism.
In Jamaica he is widely regarded as a national hero. His ideas exerted a considerable influence on such movements as Rastafari, the Nation of Islam, and the Black Power Movement.”
Marcus Garvey – Documentary [FULL]
Marcus Garvey was a Jamaican-born black nationalist and leader of the Pan-Africanism movement, which sought to unify and connect people of African descent worldwide. In the United States, he was a noted civil rights activist who founded the Negro World newspaper, a shipping company called Black Star Line and the Universal Negro Improvement Association, a fraternal organization of black nationalists.
As a group, they advocated for “separate but equal” status for persons of African ancestry, and as such they sought to establish independent black states around the world, notably in Liberia on the west coast of Africa.
Rastafari has its roots in the philosophy of Marcus Garvey.
“He was the Louis Farrakhan, Malcolm X, Martin Luther King of his time,” said Tafari.
“He was the most loved black man
by black people and the most hated black man by white people.
“Garvey’s message was if you want respect from other people,
then you have to make yourself worthy of respect. He’s been
ignored, overlooked and forgotten and that should not be so.”
Marcus Mosiah Garvey, born on the 17th of August 1887, in Jamaica, taught black self-empowerment and is credited as being the source behind the founding of Rastafari.
Although Marcus Garvey never actually followed Rastafari
or believed in it, he is considered to be one of the religion’s prophets, because it was his ideologies that eventually grew into Rastafari.
Saw The Light · Rev. Blind Gary Davis 1935 – 1949
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